Colin Atkinson and Ralph Gerbig.
Flexible deep modeling with MelaneeGI-Edition / Proceedings. Bonn br>Multi-level modeling has gained increasing attention in recent years as the maturity of the supporting tools has grown. One of the most advanced tools for deep modeling is Melanee which supports modeling through deep, multi-format, multi-notation user-defined languages. “Multiformat” refers to seamlessly editing a language in several formats in parallel (e.g. diagrammatic, textual and tabular) while “multi-notation” denotes the ability to mix notations arbitrarily (i.e. to show one part of a model in a general-purpose, UML-like, notation and one part in a domain-specific notation such as BPMN). The deep modeling component of the tool, underpinned by the orthogonal classification architecture and deep instantiation, allows models to contain as many classification levels as needed to concisely represent the domain in hand. This demonstration shows the capabilities of the Melanee tool in the context of defining a language to model the structure of an enterprise.
Sonja Klingert and Maria Perez-Ortega.
Publications Office of the European Union, 2016
Marketing data centre power flexibility. Brussels br>Data Centres are part of the backbone infrastructure of our always-and-everywhere-online lifestyle. They are also necessary components that smart cities will build on, the more they are processing sensor data in order to offer novel services to their citizens. By fulfilling all these new requirements, data centres are using an increasing amount of electric energy – about 2% of the world-wide energy consumption can be attributed to data centres; and the trend is going upwards.
But how to reduce the CO2 footprint of those data centres that need to be close to their customers and inside cities, due to latency requirements for instance? The project DC4Cities has developed a software system that enables data centres to communicate with a smart city energy management actor aiming at an optimized use of (intermittent) renewable energy sources in the smart city. In order to achieve this, DC4Cities identifies IT workload that can be shifted depending on the volatile supply of renewable energy. Also the software running inside the data centre can partially be made adaptive to the availability of renewable energy sources like sun and wind. All this is done without impacting the data centre’s core business. The technical feasibility of data centre power flexibility, as defined in DC4Cities, was shown in trials executed in data centres providing public administration services in Barcelona and health care services in the Trentino Region.
The real impact of this approach, however, depends on its penetration in real markets. This paper will show where in Europe a marketing strategy for a DC4Cities based tool has good chances and it will present business models that offer the highest potential to be economically viable for all involved parties. It will also point out to which degree the success of power profile adaptation to renewable supply curves is dependent on exogenous factors.
Tapasya Patki, Natalie Bates, Girish Ghatikar, Anders Clausen, Sonja Klingert, Ghaleb Abdulla and Mehdi Sheikhalishahi.
Supercomputing Centers and Electricity Service Providers : a geographically distributed perspective on demand management in Europe and the United StatesLecture notes in computer science. Cham br>Supercomputing Centers (SCs) have high and variable power demands, which increase the challenges of the Electricity Service Providers (ESPs) with regards to efficient electricity distribution and reliable grid operation. High penetration of renewable energy generation further exacerbates this problem. In order to develop a symbiotic relationship between the SCs and their ESPs and to support effective power management at all levels, it is critical to understand and analyze how the existing relationships were formed and how these are expected to evolve.
In this paper, we first present results from a detailed, quantitative survey-based analysis and compare the perspectives of the European grid and SCs to the ones of the United States (US). We then show that contrary to the expectation, SCs in the US are more open toward cooperating and developing demand-management strategies with their ESPs. In order to validate this result and to enable a thorough comparative study, we also conduct a qualitative analysis by interviewing three large-scale, geographically-distributed sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Leibniz Supercomputing Center (LRZ). We conclude that perspectives on demand management are dependent on the electricity market and pricing in the geographical region and on the degree of control that a particular SC has in terms of power-purchase negotiation.
Colin Atkinson, Ralph Gerbig and Christian Tunjic.
Enhancing classic transformation languages to support multi-level modeling
Software & Systems Modeling : SoSyM, 14, 65, 645-666 As practical tools for disciplined multi-level modeling have begun to mature, the problem of supporting simple and efficient transformations to-and-from multi-level models to facilitate interoperability has assumed growing importance. The challenge is not only to support efficient transformations between multi-level models, but also between multi-level and two-level model content represented in traditional modeling infrastructures such as the UML and programming languages. Multi-level model content can already be accessed by traditional transformation languages such as ATL and QVT, but in a way that is blind to the ontological classification information they contain. In this paper we present an approach for making rule-based transformation languages "multi-level aware" so that the semantics of ontological classification as well as linguistic classification can be exploited when writing transformations.
Werner Janjic, Oliver Hummel and Colin Atkinson.
Reuse-Oriented Code Recommendation Systems
Springer Berlin Recommendation Systems in Software Engineering Berlin, 359-386 Effective software reuse has long been regarded as an important foundation for a more engineering-like approach to software development. Proactive recommendation systems that have the ability to unobtrusively suggest immediately applicable reuse opportunities can become a crucial step toward realizing this goal and making reuse more practical. This chapter focuses on tools that support reuse through the recommendation of source code—reuse-oriented code recommendation systems (ROCR). These support a large variety of common code reuse approaches from the copy-and-paste metaphor to other techniques such as automatically generating code using the knowledge gained by mining source code repositories. In this chapter, we discuss the foundations of software search and reuse, provide an overview of the main characteristics of ROCR systems, and describe how they can be built.
Colin Atkinson, Thomas Schulze and Sonja Klingert.
Facilitating Greener IT through Green SpecificationsIEEE Software, 31, 13, 56-63 Current approaches for reducing IT's environmental impact typically are generic and rarely take into account services' actual functionality. To develop more powerful, service-specific strategies for reducing IT's carbon footprint, we need more complete and widely understandable specifications that describe exactly a service's functionality, the level of quality it achieves, and its environmental consequences. Such green specifications will allow more stakeholders involved in the delivery and consumption of IT services to understand their detailed functionality and the trade offs between quality of service and environmental impact entailed in their use. This will not only increase the opportunities for optimizing the delivery of services but also provide the foundation for new business models that encourage users to make greener consumption choices.
Christian Bunse, Hagen Höpfner, Sonja Klingert, Essam Mansour and Suman Roychoudhury.
Energy aware database managementLecture notes in computer science. Berlin ; Heidelberg br>
Andreas Berl, Hermann de Meer, Teresa Via and Sonja Klingert. ,
DC4Cities, An Environmentally Sustainable Data Centre for Smart Cities : Project Nº 609304 : D8.2 - Report on the 1st period of dissemination
Brussels, . This document contains the first report on dissemination activities of the project DC4Cities, explaining the dissemination activities of the first 12 months.
The consortium has achieved a wide variety of different dissemination activities. A highly visible workshop was organized, several publications were issued, and many internal and external presentations and talks were held to disseminate the project and its current insights. Furthermore, a poster and brochures were created and have been distributed, and a first press release has been issued, leading to several appearances in the news.
The first section of this deliverable includes an overview on different dissemination activities that are aimed at by the DC4Cities project. The second section describes the dissemination actions already done and ongoing dissemination in the first reporting period, classified by types. The third section outlines a general dissemination plan, some specifically planned dissemination actions, and describes a new dissemination reporting template.
Sonja Klingert, Andrea Quintiliani, Marta Chinnici, Silvia Sanjoaquin Vives, Milagros Rey Porto, Giovanni Giuliani, Maria Perez-Ortega, Frederic Wauters, Florian Niedermeier and Corentin Dupont. ,
DC4Cities, An environmentally Sustainable Data Centre for Smart Cities : Project Nº 609304 : D 7.1 - Description of Energy Metrics for Datacentres
Brussels, . The general objective of DC4Cities is to develop technologies and methodologies to increase in a significant, permanent way the share of renewable power used by DCs in their operation. In this general context, the establishment of a recognized set of metrics is an essential element, both to answer the need of tools to measure energy parameters in a datacentre and to assess the achievements of the technologies developed within the project.
In WP7 we wish to go beyond current energy metrics, towards the development of new tools capable of better capturing energy utilization efficiency and workload-based energy efficiency parameters. Moreover, the project aims at establishing a method to compare the measurements processes and finally to establish a standardization process. The idea is to establish a common methodological framework which could be adopted by ICT sector and shared with the international bodies of standardisation – such as CEN-CENELEC-ETSI – in order to evaluate the feasibility of standardisation efforts.
The present document, D7.1, fulfils the task that was outlined in the project for this first year of activity, which is mainly to analyse the current state of the art of the energy-related metrics scenario for DCs. In addition, the document describes the establishment of a complex network among 8 different EU projects, where the metrics scenario is discussed and developments are undertaken. Finally the document describes a few hypotheses and workplans for the development of original workload-based energy efficiency metrics. A plan for future work is outlined.
Sonja Klingert, Thomas Schulze, Marcus Kessel, Francesc Casaus Barreda, Albert Fiter, Federico Lombart Badal, Silvia Sanjoaquin Vives, Milagros Rey Porto, Gorka Roldan, Jordi Guijarro, Frederic Wauters and Andrea Quintiliani. ,
DC4Cities, An environmentally Sustainable Data Centre for Smart Cities : Project Nº 609304 : D2.2 - First market analysis
Brussels, . DC4Cities follows a vision: Data centres supporting a Smart City in its goal to use a high percentage of renewable energy sources in the city’s energy source mix. Even though, a set of conditions (e.g. smart meter market penetration and reformation of the EU emissions trading system) that all together will increase the potential for a striving market for DC4Cities is emerging, the current and near future situation might not allow to leverage on the full potential of the DC4Cities approach. Therefore, in the first iteration of the market analysis, the focus is on the identification of the ideal context for DC4Cities and the outline of a market for DC4Cities if this potential were unleashed within the next decades.
In order to show where and how DC4Cities could be marketed today or in the very near future, the status quo of a market for DC4Cities is first analysed from a data centre, an energy system as well as from a smart city point of view. This is taken as a basis for the characterisation of a potential future environment for DC4Cities and the identification of characteristics of data centres that are part of this environment. These findings conclude in a careful estimation where and to which extent a DC4Cities based product portfolio could be successfully introduced into the market today and in the future.
Robert Basmadjian, Gergo Lovasz, Michael Beck, Hermann de Meer, Xavier Hesselbach-Serra, Juan Felipe Botero, Sonja Klingert, Maria Pérez Ortega, Juan Carlos Lopez, Andries Stam, Rick van Krevelen and Marco Di Girolamo.
IEEE Computer Soc., 2013
A Generic Architecture For Demand Response: The
ALL4Green Approach. Los Alamitos, Calif. [u.a.] br>Demand Response is a mechanism used in power
grids to manage customers’ power consumption during critical
situations (e.g. power shortage). Data centres are good candidates
to participate in Demand Response programs due to their high energy
use. In this paper, we present a generic architecture to enable
Demand Response between Energy Provider and Data Centres
realised in All4Green. To this end, we show our three-level
concept and then illustrate the building blocks of All4Green’s
architectural design. Furthermore, we introduce the novel aspects
of GreenSDA and GreenSLA for Energy Provider–Data centre
sub-ecosystem as well as Data centre–IT Client sub-ecosystem
respectively. In order to further reduce energy consumption and
CO2 emission, the notion of data centre federation is introduced:
savings can be expected if data centres start to collaborate by
exchanging workload. Also, we specify the technological solutions
necessary to implement our proposed architectural approach.
Finally, we present preliminary proof-of-concept experiments,
conducted both on traditional and cloud computing data centres,
which show relatively encouraging results.
Andreas Berl, Sonja Klingert, Michael Till Beck and Hermann de Meer.
Oesterreichische Computer Ges., 2013
Integrating Data Centres into Demand-Response Management: A Local Case Study. Wien br>Power supply needs to match power demand up
to a certain extent at all times in order to provide power with sufficient quality and to maintain the power grid in a stable state. Matching power supply to power demand becomes
challenging due to a steadily increasing power demand and due to an increasing production of power based on renewable energy
sources. Demand-response management shapes power demand according to the current power availability in the power grid. This
paper discusses the feasibility and benefits of integrating data centres into demand-response schemes. Newly designed energy tariffs (so-called green supply-demand agreements) are presented that provide incentives for a possible cooperation between energy provider and data centre. Furthermore, this paper performs a local case study, where financial benefits of integrating data centres into demand-response management are evaluated in a real-world example.
Oliver Erlenkämper. 2013
Realizing Automated Test Recommendations in Software Development Environments.
Mannheim Software testing is a mainly manually performed and thus very labour intensive process. Beside time, it demands a high amount of domain knowledge, concentration and problem awareness from the developer.
Although software reuse is a well examined area –in both academia and industry – it is mainly focussed on the reuse of different kinds of documentation and program code. In this thesis we create a client-side
recommendation system for the novel idea for an automated test recommendation approach that is based on lessons learned from traditional software reuse and recommendation. While most existing testing assistance systems help a developer by providing information about various coverage criteria only ex post, we want to support the developer pro-actively while writing the test and create as little overhead as possible during his work. Thereby we benefit from the lessons learned in the area of ”traditional” software reuse and apply them in a kind of test reuse for test recommendation approach. To validate our theoretical considerations, we present a tool that will help writing tests with less effort.
Colin Atkinson, Philipp Bostan and Dirk Draheim.
A Unified Conceptual Framework for Service-Oriented Computing - Aligning Models of Architecture and Utilization
Springer Transactions on large-scale data- and knowledge-centered systems VII Berlin [u.a.], 128-169 Given the importance of clients in service-oriented computing, and the ongoing evolution of distributed system realization technologies from client/service architectures, through distributed-object and service-oriented architectures to cloud computing, there is a growing need to lower the complexities and barriers involved in the development of client applications. These range from large scale business applications and business processes to laptop programs and small ”apps” on mobile devices. In this paper we present a unified conceptual framework in which the basic concerns and viewpoints relevant for building clients of service-oriented, distributed systems can be expressed and related to one another in a platform-independent, non-proprietary way. The basic concerns used to structure the framework are the level of abstraction at which a system is represented and the roles from which the software entities of a distributed system are viewed. Using the various concepts and models supported in the framework it is possible to customize and simplify each client developer’s view and to simplify the way in which service providers develop and maintain their services. This paper provides an overview of the framework’s foundations and concepts. We also present the vision behind this conceptual framework and present a small example to show how the models contained in the framework are applied in practice.
Colin Atkinson, Ralph Gerbig, Florian Barth, Felix Freiling, Sebastian Schinzel, Frank Hadasch, Alexander Maedche and Benjamin Müller.
IEEE Computer Soc., 2012
Reducing the Incidence of Unintended, Human-Caused Information Flows in Enterprise Systems. Los Alamitos, Calif. [u.a.] br>Research in enterprise system security has largely focused on the development of theoretical models capable of demonstrating mathematically that they possess desired security properties. However, recent results confirm that many of these models cannot be applied in practice because of the unpredictability of human participants' behavior in business processes. Moreover, while malicious attacks remain a significant problem, the majority of user-caused information leaks in Enterprise Systems are unintentional (or have many unintentional components) and could potentially be prohibited if explicitly recognized and appropriately modeled. In this paper we argue that approaches for achieving information flow security in enterprises need to combine process and policy understandability with usability of the enforcement mechanisms. We present a modeling approach that allows security policies to be formulated in such a way that (1) they are aligned to the business processes executed in an enterprise, (2) are understandable by all relevant stakeholders, and (3) can be semi-automatically transformed into run-time enforcement mechanisms.
Ralph Gerbig. 2011
The Level-agnostic Modeling Language: Language Specification and Tool Implementation.
Mannheim Since the release of the Entity-Relationship modelling language in 1976 and the UML in the early 1990's no fundamental developments in the concrete syntax of general purpose modelling languages have been made. With today's trends in model-driven technologies and the rising need for domain specific languages the weaknesses of the traditional languages become more and more obvious. Among these weaknesses are missing support for modelling multiple ontological levels or the lack of built-in Domain Specific Language development capabilities. The Level-agnostic Modeling Language (LML) was developed to address these two needs. During its development care was taken to retain the strengths of traditional languages.
This thesis is based on a collection of papers about multilevel modelling. The collection starts with a paper that identifies the need for multilevel modelling through a practical example of a language used to describe computer hardware product hierarchies. A later paper examines the problems of current technologies from a more theoretical point of view and suggestions to solve the identified issues are made. The latest work in this collection defines the LML based on previously made observations. The work on the LML has now reached a maturity level which makes it worthwhile to write an LML specification 1.0 and implement a tool to give other researchers the opportunity to use this new technology.
The thesis provides the specification 1.0 of the LML. Additionally, a graphical editor based on one of today's leading model driven development platforms, Eclipse, is developed.
Springer Business process technology : a unified view on business processes, workflows and enterprise applications Berlin [u.a.], V
Colin Atkinson, Philipp Bostan, Daniel Brenner, Giovanni Falcone, Matthias Gutheil, Oliver Hummel, Monika Juhasz and Dietmar Stoll.
Modeling Components and Component-Based Systems in KobrA
Springer The Common Component Modeling Example : Comparing Software Component Models Berlin [u.a.], 54-84
Peter Dadam, Manfred Reichert, Stefanie Rinderle and Colin Atkinson.
Auf dem Weg zu prozessorientierten Informationssystemen der nächsten Generation : Herausforderungen und LösungskonzepteSchriftenreihe zum DoIT-Software-Forschungstag. Stuttgart br>Prozess-Management-Systeme müssen gegenüber dem heutigen Stand erheblich leistungsfähiger werden, damit prozessorientierte Informationssysteme für ein breites Spektrum von Anwendungen einsetzbar werden. Besonders wichtig ist in diesem Zusammenhang ist die Realisierung einer wesentlich höheren Flexibilität und Adaptivität als sie von heutigen Systemen geboten werden. In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst aus Anwendersicht aufgezeigt, wie der Umgang mit solchen flexiblen und adaptiven Prozess-Management- Systemen aus Anwendersicht aussehen könnte und was die daraus resultierenden technologischen Herausforderungen sind. Die vorgestellten Beispiele und Lösungsansätze orientieren sich an den im ADEPT-Projekt gewonnenen Erkenntnissen sowie den im Nachfolgeprojekt AristaFlow verfolgten Zielen.
Colin Atkinson and Kilian Kiko. ,
A Detailed Comparison of UML and OWL
, . As models and ontologies assume an increasingly central role in software and information systems engineering, the question of how exactly they compare and how they can sensibly be used together assumes growing importance. However, no study to date has systematically and comprehensively compared the two technology spaces, and a large variety of different bridging and integration ideas have been proposed in recent years without any detailed analysis of whether they are sound or useful. In this paper, we address this problem by providing a detailed and comprehensive comparison of the two technology spaces in terms of their flagship languages – UML and OWL – each a de facto and de jure standard in its respective space. To fully analyze the end user experience, we perform the comparison at two levels – one considering the underlying boundary assumptions and philosophy adopted by each language and the other considering their detailed features. We also consider all relevant auxiliary languages such as OCL. The resulting comparison clarifies the relationship between the two technologies and provides a solid foundation for deciding how to use them together or integrate them.
Hilmar Acker, Colin Atkinson, Peter Dadam, Stefanie Rinderle and Manfred Reichert.
Ges. für Informatik, 2004
Aspekte der komponentenorientierten Entwicklung adaptiver prozessorientierter UnternehmenssoftwareGI-Edition / Proceedings. Bonn br>Prozessorientierte Informationssysteme, Workflow-Management und komponentenorientierte Softwareerstellung sind Schlagworte, die in aller Munde sind. Jedoch werden diese Aspekte bzw. Technologien heute von kaum einem Unternehmen bei der Entwicklung ihrer Software und der Realisierung betrieblicher Informationssysteme wirklich konsequent um- bzw. eingesetzt ? und wenn sie Verwendung finden, dann oft in einer Form, bei der das Potenzial dieser Ansätze nicht annähernd genutzt wird. In diesem Beitrag behandeln wir fundamentale Fragestellungen, die sich bei der Realisierung prozessorientierter Informationssysteme aus Anwendungskomponenten ergeben. Wir zeigen, wie diese Aspekte von uns im Aristaflow-Projekt aufgegriffen werden. Ziel ist die Entwicklung einer Software, die es erlauben wird, robuste und adaptive prozessorientierte Informationssysteme, mit Hilfe von Komponententechnologie und darauf zugeschnittenen Entwurfs- und Entwicklungsumgebungen im "Plug & Play"-Stil, zu realisieren.
Colin Atkinson, Franck Barbier and Brian Henderson-Sellers.
Kluwer Business Component Based Software Engineering Boston, Mass. [u.a.], 1-26
Colin Atkinson, Christian Bunse, Jean-Francois Girard and Thomas Kühne.
Komponentenmodell für Web-Anwendungen
Fraunhofer IESE, FZI Handbuch zur komponentenbasierten Softwareentwicklung Kaiserslautern [u.a.], 7-50